Medico-legal expertise in Urology
Medico-legal expertise in Urology 

Glossary of Terms


Abdominoplasty surgery- This is a cosmetic operation on the abdominal wall.


Anorectal physiology- This is a test which is used to measure the strength of the muscles in the anal canal to see if they are working properly, and also to test the sensitivity.


Anticholinergic- This is a type of medication that block the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain.


Atrophic vaginitis- oestrogen deficiency in the vaginal skin.


Colposuspension surgery- This is a surgical procedure provides better support for the neck of the bladder so it stays closed when it is under pressure. This is done by lifting the front wall of the vagina and attaching it with permanent stitches onto a ligament behind the pubic bone.


Cystocele- This is a protrusion of the urinary bladder into the vagina due to defects in pelvic support.


Cystoscopy- This is a procedure with a camera used to examine the inside of the bladder.


Detrusor overactivity- Involuntary contractions of the detrusor muscle.


Dynamic MRI Study- This is an image method where T1 weighted MRI scans are acquired dynamically after injection of an MRI contrast agent.


Dyspareunia- pain on penetrative sexual intercourse.


Endometriosis- This is when the tissue that normally lines the uterus- the endometrium- grows outside the uterus.


Enterocele- This is a defect of the pelvic supporting tissue.


EUA - Abbreviation for examination under anaesthesia.


Fistula- This is a passage or hole that has formed between two hollow spaces.


Foreign body giant cell reaction- Cellular immune reaction to foreign material in the body.


Haematuria- The presence of blood in the urine.


Interstitial cystitis- This is a condition of unknown etiology characterised by pain when the bladder is full.


Labiaplasty- This is a plastic surgery procedure used for altering the appearance of the labia.


Lymphoedema- fluid collection in the limbs related to poor tissue drainage.


Myofascial Release Therapy- this is a specialised physical and manual therapy used for the effective treatment and rehabilitation of soft tissue and fascial tension and restrictions.


Nerve blocks- The deliberate interruption of signals travelling along the nerve, this causes pain relief.


Overactive Bladder- Symptoms of overactive bladder include urgency, frequent urination and urinating unintentionally.


Pelvic floor muscles- These are a group of muscles which wrap around the underside of the bladder and rectum.


Posterior Colporrhaphy- This is a surgical procedure to repair/ reinforce the fascial support between the vagina and rectum.


Pubovaginal sling- This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where a hammock of durable mesh is placed under the urethra to support it when pressure arises.


Rectocele- This is a protrusion of the rectum through a deficient posterior vaginal wall.


Rectovaginal septum- The plane between the rectum and the vagina.


Retropubic- With regards to TVT, this means that the tape is passed upwards and behind the pubic bone.


Sigmoidoscopy- This is the examination of the sigmoid colon by a flexible tube being inserted through the anus.


Stress urinary incontinence- This is the involuntary leakage of urine on exertion, such as coughing and sneezing. 


Suprapubic Catheter- Catheter passed through the abdominal wall into the bladder.


Transobturator / TOT - With regards to transvaginal mesh insertion, a transobturator approach passes through the natural windows (obturator foramina) in the pelvic bone.


Transvaginal tape (TVT)- This is a tension-free vaginal tape procedure is when a mesh tape is placed under the urethra to keep the urethra in its normal position.


Ureteric stents- These are internal drainage tubes temporarily placed to allow kidney drainage.


Ureters- These are tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder.


Urethra- This is the tube that connects the bladder to the urinary meatus to remove fluids from the body.


Urinary incontinence- This is the involuntary leakage of urine.


Urinary urgency- This is the complaint of a sudden compelling desire to urinate which is difficult to defer.


Urodynamics- This is a invasive test measuring the pressure in the bladder and rectum with a view to understanding out how the bladder and urethra are performing their function of storing and releasing urine.


Vaginal erosion- This is when mesh is cutting through into the urethra.


Vaginal extrusion- This is a synthetic mesh appearing through the vaginal skin.


Vaginoscopy- This is performed to diagnose abnormalities or lesions affecting the vaginal wall.


Valsalva Manoeuvre- This is performed by attempting to exhale while keeping the mouth and nose closed.


Voiding disorder- This is the lack of co-ordination between the bladder muscle and the urethra.


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